Audit Logs for Azure Events

Note: This post is cross-post with http://blogs.msdn.com/b/cloud_solution_architect.

A common ask when working with Microsoft Azure is, “how can I view audit logs to determine who made changes to the subscription(s) and the related Azure resources?” With the new Audit Logs feature now available in the Azure Preview Portal (https://portal.azure.com), keeping track of changes becomes easier than ever.

Before getting started, I would like to point out that Dushyant Gill has an excellent post in which he provides one way to answer three very important questions:

  1. Who all has access to my subscriptions?
  2. What access does a specific user have on my subscription?
  3. Who gained (or lost) access to my subscriptions in the past n days?

In Dushyant’s post, he describes a PowerShell module he wrote that makes it easy to generate reports which answer the above questions.

In this post, I will describe one approach for working with the new Azure Audit Logs to determine what changed, and also how to view logs related to the addition or removal of co-administrators. Along with the PowerShell module described in Dushyant’s post, this should allow much more insights into the actions taken against an Azure subscription.

What Changed?

By opening the new Audit Logs blade in the Azure Preview Portal, you can view many of the events that occurred against the subscription.

Audit Logs - Single

The Audit Logs blade will show five key pieces of information for the list of operations:

  1. Operation name
  2. Level: Critical, Error, Warning, or Informational
  3. Status: Succeeded or Failed
  4. Resource
  5. Time

Note 1: Use the Filter action at the top of the Audit Logs blade to modify the operations displayed.

Note 2: Audit logs are available for only the Azure resources available in the Azure Preview Portal and/or the Azure Resource Manager API.

 

Clicking on a specific operation will open additional blades to view more detailed information.

Full Audit Logs

The Detail blade will allow you to view key pieces of information such as who made the change, when the change was made, what was the Azure resource and resource group affected, etc.

Audit Logs - Detail Blade

If the change is related to a role assignment (i.e. adding a user to one of the new Role Based Access Control (RBAC) related roles – Virtual Machine Contributor, Website Contributor, etc.), the Detail blade will show additional information to show the user that was added to the role. At the time of this writing, however, the user and role is displayed as a GUID and not the corresponding friendly name (e.g. email address or role name). It is anticipated this will be cleaned up in a feature update to the Azure Preview Portal. In the meantime, you can leverage a few Azure PowerShell cmdlets to piece together the relevant information.

In the Details blade, have a look at the PROPERTIES value. There are two key pieces of information here: the PrincipalId and the RoleDefinitionId.

Audit Logs - Add User to RBAC Role

For the cmdlets below, you will need to switch to the Azure Resource Manager mode in Azure Powershell by executing the command below.  Azure PowerShell version 0.8.15 is used in this post, although the cmdlets below first appeared in version 0.8.14.

Switch-AzureMode AzureResourceManager

 

To determine the role to which the user was assigned, use the Get-AzureRoleDefintion cmdlet. This cmdlet returns all the role definitions, so you will need to search for the specific definition (the GUID after “roleDefinition”) as indicated the PROPERTIES in the Detail blade.

Get-AzureRoleDefinition | where { ($_.Id -like "*de139f84-1756-47ae-9be6-808fbbe84772" )}

Get-AzureRoleDefinition

To get the user added to the role, use the Get-AzureAdUser cmdlet. For the -ObjectId parameter, use the PrincipalId value from the PROPERTIES in the Detail blade.

Get-AzureADUser -ObjectId b458cfbc-a101-45c1-9575-1ec43aefcc45

Get-AzureAdUser

What about Co-Administrators and Management Certificates?

When it comes to permissions in Azure, there are three approaches that can be used: the co-administrator model, management certificates, and Role Based Access Control (RBAC). The co-administrator model has been the security model in working with Azure for quite some time. People that wanted to work with Azure (assuming they were not the subscription owner) could be granted access to the Azure subscription as a co-administrator. As a co-administrator, they could take any action they desired against any Azure service.  If non-interactive administrative access was needed, a management certificate could be added to the target subscription(s).

Going back to the earlier topic of what change was made and by whom – how can we tell when a co-administrator or management certificate was added to the subscription?

For management certificates, you can use the List Subscription Operations service management API call. There is an Operation Name parameter in the response that should include AddSubscriptionCertificate and RemoveSubscriptionCertificate for the respective action.

AddSubscriptionCertificate

An astute observer of the MSDN documentation for List Subscription Operations will notice there is no corresponding operation for co-administrators. To obtain information about co-administrators being added or removed from a subscription, we can leverage the new audit logs available in the Azure Preview Portal and Azure Resource Manager API. Co-administrators in the Azure Management Portal actually correspond to the Owner role available in the Azure Preview Portal (and thus Azure Resource Manager). Adding or removing a co-administrator via the Azure Management Portal creates an event with Azure Resource Manager that is then logged. However, as of the time of this writing, the addition or removal of co-administrators is not yet reported in the Azure Preview Portal’s Audit Logs.

To get the audit logs related to the addition or remove of co-administrators, you can use the Get-AzureResourceProviderLog PowerShell cmdlet. This cmdlet retrieves the operations associated for a specific Resource Provider – in this case we would want operations against the Microsoft.Authoriztion provider. For example, to view the logs for a certain date range, you could execute a command similar to the following:

Get-AzureResourceProviderLog -ResourceProvider "Microsoft.Authorization" -StartTime "2015-03-10" -EndTime "2015-03-11" -DetailedOutput

A screenshot of the output is below. In the screenshot you’ll notice you can see the adminEmail and adminType for the user added via the Azure Management Portal.

Get-AzureResourceProviderLog - Add CoAdmins

Alternatively, you could get all the authorization events starting from a specific date up until the current time:

Get-AzureResourceProviderLog -ResourceProvider "Microsoft.Authorization" -StartTime "2015-03-11" -DetailedOutput

Get-AzureResourceProviderLog - Remove CoAdmins

It should be noted that there currently does seem to be at least two known bugs related to the shown information:

  1. If the removed co-admin is an Azure AD user (as opposed to a Microsoft Account), the adminEmail is empty
  2. The Caller value is not populating

 

But Wait! There’s More!!

The Get-AzureResourceProviderLog cmdlet shown above is just one of the new audit log cmdlets now available. It is easy to view the additional cmdlets by executing the following command:

get-help get-*Azure*log*
Name Description
Get-AzureSubscriptionIdLog Gets the operations associated with the current subscriptionId
Get-AzureResourceProviderLog Gets the operations associated with a Resource Provider
Get-AzureResourceLog Gets the operations associated with a ResourceId
Get-AzureResourceGroupLog Gets the deployment log for a resource group
Get-AzureCorrelationIdLog Gets the operations associated with a CorrelationId.

 

Summary

The new Audit Logs feature in the Azure Preview Portal, combined with new Azure PowerShell cmdlets, make it easier than ever to have insights into the changes made to an Azure subscription. Together, with the module described in Dushyant Gill’s post, many of the administrative actions taken against an Azure subscription and related resources are now easily viewable.

Please be sure to be using at least version 0.8.14 (that’s when the cmdlets mentioned in this post first appeared) of the Azure PowerShell cmdlets, and switch to use the AzureResourceManager mode for the cmdlets as well.

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